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              辦臨時牌子需要什么(共4篇)

              來源:愛國名言 時間:2019-03-10 點擊: 推薦訪問:

              【www.harajorga.com--愛國名言】

              辦臨時牌子需要什么(一):

              名人的故事.要有激勵性的 比如愛國,奧運等.中國的.既然是故事,就必須要有對話.1000字左右.

               老舍的
                抗戰期間,北新書局出版的《青年界》,曾向作家老舍(1899-1966
                年)催過稿.老舍在寄稿的同時,幽默地寄去了一封帶戲曲味的答
                催稿信:
                元帥發來緊急令: 內無糧草外無兵!小將提槍上
                了馬,《青年界》上走一程,吠!馬來!參見元帥.
                帶來多少人馬?2000來個字!還都是老弱殘兵!后帳
                休息!得令!正是: 旌旗明明, 殺氣滿山頭!
                老舍40歲時曾寫了個質樸自謙、妙趣橫生的自傳,全文如下:
                舒舍予,字老舍,現年四十歲,面黃無須.生于北平.
                三歲失估,可謂無父;志學之年,帝王不存,可謂無君.
                無父無君,特別孝愛老母,布爾喬嚴之仁未能一掃空地.
                幼讀三百篇,不求甚解.繼學師范,遂奠教書匠之基,
                及壯,糊口四方,教書為業,甚難發財,每購獎券,以
                得末彩為榮,亦甘于寒賤也.二十七歲發憤著書,科學
                哲學無所懂,故寫小說,博大家一笑,沒什么了不得.
                三十四歲結婚,已有一男一女,均狡猾可喜.閑時喜養
                花,不得其法,每每有葉無花,亦不忍棄.書無所不讀,
                全無所獲并不著急.教書作事均甚認真,往往吃虧,亦
                不后悔.如此而已,再活四十年,也許有點出息.
                一次老舍家里來了許多青年人,請教怎樣寫詩.老舍說:“
                我不會寫詩, 只是瞎湊而已.”
                有人提議,請老舍當場“瞎湊”一首.
                大雨洗星海,
                長虹萬籟天;
                冰瑩成舍我,
                碧野林風眠.
                老舍隨口吟了這首別致的五言絕旬.寥寥20宇把8位人們熟悉
                并稱道的文藝家的名字,“瞎湊”在一起,形象鮮明,意境
                開闊,余味無窮.青年們聽了,無不贊嘆叫絕.
                詩中提到的大雨即孫大雨,現代詩人、文學翻譯家.洗星海
                即洗星海,人民音樂家.高長虹是現代名人.萬籟在是戲劇、
                電影工作者.冰瑩,現代女作家,湖南人.成舍我曾任重慶
                《新蜀報》總編輯.碧野是當代作家.林風眠是畫家.
                作家樓適夷(1905年生)有次去看望老舍.“最近寫些什么”
                樓適夷問道.
                滿族出身的老舍笑著說:“我正在當‘奴才’,給我們的
                ‘皇帝’潤色稿子呢!”
                一陣大笑,方知老舍正接受一項新任務——為中國末代皇帝
                溥儀修改他的自傳《我的前半生》.
                馮玉樣(1882——1948年)生平讀書十分用功,他當士兵時,一有
                空就讀書,有時竟徹夜不眠.晚上讀書,為了不影響他人睡覺,
                就找來個大木箱,開個口子,把頭伸進去,借微弱的燈光看書.
                馮玉樣擔任旅長時,駐軍湘南常德,規定每日早晨讀英語2小時,
                學習時,關上大門,門外懸一塊牌子,上面寫“馮玉樣死了”,
                拒絕外人進入.學習完畢, 門上字牌則換成“馮玉祥活了”.
                馮玉祥對不遵守時間的人深惡痛絕.
                1927年,因為汪精衛不守會議時間,開會經常缺席、遲到,馮玉
                樣一怒之下,編成一副對聯送給了他:
                一桌子點心,半桌子水果,哪知民間疾苦
                兩點鐘開會,四點鐘到齊,豈是革命精神
                當年馮玉祥有個軍事顧問叫烏斯馬諾夫.他特別喜歡打聽西北軍
                的事情,還常常纏著馮玉樣問這問那.開始問一些西北軍的一般
                情況,漸漸涉及行敵的人事安排.這天烏斯馬諾夫又向馮玉樣問
                一些事,馮玉樣不悅地說:“顧問先生,你知道在我們中國,
                ‘顧問’兩個宇當什么講嗎?”
                烏斯馬諾夫搖了搖頭: “不知道.”
                馮玉祥告訴他說:“顧者著也,問者問話也.顧問者,就是當我
                看著你,有話問你的時候,你答復就是了.”
                抗戰時期,馮玉祥居住在重慶市郊的歌樂山,當地多為高級軍政
                長官的住宅,普通老百姓不敢擔任保長,馮玉樣遂自薦當了保長.
                因他熱心服務,頗得居民好評.
                有一天,某部隊一連士兵進駐該地,連長來找保長辦官差,借用
                民房,借桌椅用具,因不滿意而橫加指責.
                馮玉樣身穿藍粗布褲褂,頭上纏一塊白布,這是四川農民的標準
                裝束,他見連長發火,便彎腰深深一鞠躬,道:“大人,辛苦了!
                這個地方住了許多當官的,差事實在不好辦,臨時駐防,將就一
                點就是了.”
                連長一聽,大怒道:“要你來教訓我!你這個保長架子可不小!”
                馮玉樣微笑回答:“不敢,我從前也當過兵,從來不愿打擾老百
                姓.”
                連長問:“你還干過什么?”
                “排長、連長也干過,營長、 團長也干過.”
                那位連長起立,略顯客氣地說:“你還干過什么?”
                馮不慌不忙,仍然微笑說:“師長、軍長也干過,還干過幾天總
                司令.”
                連長細看這個大塊頭,突然如夢初醒,雙腳一并:“你是馮副委
                員長?部下該死,請副委員長處分!”
                馮玉祥再一鞠躬:“大人請坐!在軍委會我是副委員長,在這里
                我是保長,理應侍侯大人.”幾句話說得這位連長誠惶誠恐無地
                自容,匆匆退出.【辦臨時牌子需要什么】

              辦臨時牌子需要什么(二):

              50個形近字和100個多音字 【辦臨時牌子需要什么】

              "漓","漓江","璃","玻璃","籬","籬笆"
              "瑕","無瑕","霞","彩霞","假","真假"
              "翡","翡翠","匪","土匪","輩","前輩"
              "巒","山巒","戀","依戀","赤","赤熱"
              "障","障礙","彰","表彰","瘴","瘴氣"
              "筏","竹筏","伐","砍伐","閥","軍閥"
              "乏","缺乏","泛","泛著","眨","眨眼"
              "綿","綿羊","棉","棉花","錦","錦繡"
              "凌","凌晨","陵","陵墓","棱","棱角"
              "釀","釀酒","娘","姑娘","糧","糧食"
              "廈","大廈","夏","夏天","復","復習"
              "綜","綜合","粽","粽子","蹤","跟蹤"
              "硯","硯臺","現","現在","觀","觀看"
              "錘","錘子","垂","垂直","捶","捶打"
              "焚","焚燒","林","森林","災","災難"
              "協","協助","脅","威脅","辦","辦理"
              "檐","屋檐","瞻","瞻仰","詹","姓詹"
              "澤","光澤","擇","選擇","譯","翻譯"
              "繹","絡繹","宣","宣言","喧","喧嘩"
              "鈕","電鈕","扭","扭動","妞","小妞"
              "徐","徐徐","除","除法","敘","敘舊"
              "幟","旗幟","職","職位","織","織布"
              "袖","領袖","郵","郵遞","迪","啟迪"
              "笛","笛子","油","汽油","柚","柚子"
              "挪","挪動","娜","婀娜","哪","哪里"
              "謀","謀取","媒","媒人","煤","煤炭"
              "脈","血脈","泳","游泳","詠","歌詠"
              "剝","剝削","錄","錄取","尋","尋找"
              "妥","妥當","采","采取","受","受理"
              "帖","請帖","貼","粘貼","沾","沾濕"
              "藉","慰藉","籍","書籍","惜","可惜"
              "償","補償","嘗","嘗試","常","經常"
              "饞","饞嘴","攙","攙扶","勉","勉勵"
              "誕","誕生","延","延長","蜒","蜿蜒"
              "庭","家庭","廷","宮廷","蜓","蜻蜓"
              "埃","塵埃","挨","挨打","唉","唉呀"
              "矣","去矣","允","允許","縣","縣城"
              "渺","渺小","緲","縹緲","妙","奇妙"
              "礦","礦石","鄺","姓鄺","擴","擴大"
              "賜","恩賜","易","容易","匯","匯成"
              "喝","喝水","渴","口渴","竭","枯竭"
              "慷","慷慨","康","健康","糠","米糠"
              "慨","慷慨","概","大概","既","既然"
              "濫","泛濫","臨","臨時","監","監守"
              "睹","目睹","賭","賭錢","堵","堵死"
              "者","記者","都","首都","嘟","肥嘟嘟"
              "磅","磅礴","榜","榜樣","傍","傍晚"
              "旁","旁邊","鎊","英鎊","謗","誹謗"
              "礴","磅礴","薄","薄弱","博","博士"
              "搏","搏斗","膊","胳膊","傅","師傅"
              "拆","拆除","折","折斷","近","走近"
              "咨","咨詢","資","資本","姿","英姿"
              "詢","詢問","旬","中旬","甸","沉甸甸"
              "碟","碟子","蝶","蝴蝶","諜","間諜"
              "暉","春暉","揮","揮春","輝","光輝"
              "謄","謄寫","騰","奔騰","譽","名譽"
              "篇","詩篇","偏","偏心","翩","翩翩起舞"
              "遍","一遍","編","編織","扁","扁擔"
              "版","出版","板","黑板","返","返回"
              "皺","皺紋","玻","玻璃","頗","頗負盛名"
              "歧","歧視","枝","樹枝","此","豈有此理"
              "謹","謹慎","勤","勤勞","緊","緊張"
              "巢","鳥巢","巡","巡視","裹","包裹"
              "梢","樹梢","稍","稍微","哨","口哨"
              "俏","俏麗","屑","不屑","消","消息"
              "暇","應接不暇","瑕","純潔無瑕","遐","聞名遐邇"
              "茸","毛茸茸","絨","絨毛","聳","高聳入云"
              "擲","投擲","摯","誠摯","鄭","姓鄭"
              "俗","風俗","欲","欲望","裕","富裕"
              "瑞","瑞雪","端","端正","喘","喘氣"
              "兆","預兆","眺","眺望","跳","跳水"
              "諺","諺語","顏","顏色","眈","虎視眈眈"
              "枕","枕頭","耽","耽誤","沈","姓沈"
              "饅","饅頭","鰻","鰻魚","曼","輕歌曼舞"
              "謾","謾罵","蔓","蔓延","漫","漫山遍野"
              "柜","立柜","距","距離","拒","拒絕"
              "炬","火炬","巨","巨大","臣","大臣"
              "銹","生銹","繡","錦繡","透","透過"
              "摩","摩平","磨","石磨","魔","魔鬼"
              "爹","爹爹","斧","斧子","爺","爺爺"
              "襖","棉襖","沃","肥沃","躍","跳躍"
              "妖","妖怪","夭","夭折","天","一天"
              "筒","筆筒","銅","銅鐵","桐","梧桐樹"
              "水桶","垃圾桶","鐵桶","郵筒","袖筒","襪筒"
              "揪","揪著","鰍","泥鰍","秋","秋千"
              "粥","稀粥","弼","弼馬溫","弱","強弱"
              "吉","吉利","桔","桔子","喜","大喜"
              "炕","暖炕","抗","抗日","亢","高亢激昂"
              "膚","皮膚","扶","攙扶","夫","夫妻"
              "簽","簽條","鑒","鑒別","劍","利劍"
              "檢","檢查","撿","撿到","儉","簡樸"
              "縮","縮短","宿","宿舍","肅","嚴肅"
              "脾","脾氣","牌","牌子","碑","石碑"
              "冊","冊數","朋","朋友","拜","拜拜"
              "熄","熄燈","息","休息","媳","媳婦"
              "諒","原諒","涼","著涼","晾","晾干"
              "俱","與時俱進","具","具體","懼","恐懼"
              "曰","子曰","日","日子","于","于是"
              "盂","盤盂","孟","孟子","吁","氣喘吁吁"
              "滄","滄滄涼涼","蒼","蒼天","艙","船艙"
              "搶","搶奪","槍","手槍","蹌","踉踉蹌蹌"
              "淪","淪落","倫","無與倫比","輪","車輪"
              "論","討論","掄","掄拳","圇","囫圇吞棗"
              "湯","湯水","燙","燙傷","場","場地"
              "楊","楊樹","揚","飄揚","易","容易"
              多音字
              1、單:單(shàn,姓)老師說,單(chán匈奴族首領)于只會騎馬,不會騎單(dān)車.
              2、折:這兩批貨物都打折(zhé)出售,嚴重折(shé)本,他再也經不起這樣折(zhē)騰了.
              3、喝:武松大喝(hè)一聲:“快拿酒來!我要喝(hē)十二碗.”博得眾食客一陣喝(hè)彩.
              4、著:你這著(zhāo名詞)真絕,讓他干著(zháo動詞)急,又無法著(zhuó)手應付,心里老是懸著(zhe).
              5、蕃:吐蕃(bō藏族的前身)族在青藏高原生活、蕃(fán茂盛、繁多)衍了幾千年.
              6、量:有閑心思量(liáng)她,沒度量(liàng)寬容她.野外測量(liáng)要量(liàng)力而行.
              7、沓:他把紛至沓(tà)來的想法及時寫在一沓(dá)紙上,從不見他有疲沓(ta)之色.
              8、烊:商店晚上也要開門,打烊(yàng晚上關門)過早不好,糖烊(yáng溶化)了都賣不動了.
              9、載:據史書記載(zǎi),王昭君多才多藝,每逢三年五載(zǎi)漢匈首腦聚會,她都要載(zài)歌載(zài)舞.
              10、曝:陳濤參加體育鍛煉缺乏毅力、一曝(pù)十寒的事情在校會上被曝(bào)光,他感到十分羞愧.
              11、寧:盡管他生活一直沒寧(níng)靜過,但他寧(nìng)死不屈,也不息事寧(níng)人.
              12、和:天氣暖和(huo),小和(hé)在家和(huó動詞)泥抹墻;他講原則性,是非面前從不和(huò)稀泥,也不隨聲附和(hè動詞)別人,更不會在麻將桌上高喊:“我和(hú)了.”
              13、省:湖北副省(shěng)長李大強如能早些省(xǐng)悟,就不致于丟官棄職、氣得不省(xǐng)人事了.
              14、拗:這首詩寫得太拗(ào)口了,但他執拗(niù)不改,氣得我把筆桿都拗(ǎo)斷了.
              15、臭:臭氣熏天的臭(chòu)是指氣味難聞,無聲無臭的臭(xiù)是泛指一般氣味.
              16、度:度(dù姓)老師寬宏大度(dù名詞),一向度(duó動詞)德量力,從不以己度(duó動詞)人.
              17、哄:他那像哄(hǒng)小孩似的話,引得人們哄(hāng)堂大笑,大家聽了一哄(hòng)而散.
              18、喪:他穿著喪(sāng)服,為喪(sāng)葬費發愁,神情沮喪(sàng)、垂頭喪(sàng)氣.
              19、差:他每次出差(chāi)差(chà)不多都要出點差(chā)錯.
              20、扎:魚拼命掙扎(zhá),魚刺扎(zhā)破了手,他隨意包扎(zā)一下.
              21、埋:他自己懶散,卻總是埋(mán)怨別人埋(mái)頭工作.
              22、盛:盛(shèng)老師盛(shèng)情邀我去她家做客,并幫我盛(chéng)飯.
              23、傖:這個人衣著寒傖(chen),語言傖(cāng)俗.
              24、創:勇于創(chuàng)造的人難免會遭受創(chuāng)傷.
              25、伯:我是她的大伯(bó),不是她的大伯(bǎi)子.
              26、瘧:發瘧(yāo)子就是患了瘧(nǜe)疾.
              27、看:看(kān)守大門的保安也很喜歡看(kàn)小說.
              28、行:銀行(háng)發行(xíng)股票,報紙刊登行(háng)情.
              29、艾:他在耆艾(ài)之年得了艾(ài)滋病,整天自怨自艾(yì).
              30、把:你把(bǎ)水缸把(bà)摔壞了,以后使用沒把(bǎ)柄了.
              31、傳:《鴻門宴》是漢代傳(zhuàn)記而不是唐代傳(chuán)奇.
              32、荷:荷(hé)花旁邊站著一位荷(hè)槍實彈的戰士.
              33、漲:我說她漲(zhǎng)了工資,她就漲(zhàng)紅著臉搖頭否認.
              34、奇:數學中奇(jī)數是最奇(qí)妙的.
              35、炮:能用打紅的炮(pào)筒炮(bāo)羊肉和炮(páo)制藥材嗎?
              36、給:請把這封信交給(gěi)團長,告訴他,前線的供給(jǐ)一定要有保障

              37、冠:他得了冠(guàn)軍后就有點冠(guān)冕堂皇了.
              38、干:穿著干(gān)凈的衣服干(gàn)臟活,真有點不協調.
              39、巷:礦下的巷(hàng)道與北京四合院的小巷(xiàng)有點相似.
              40、薄:薄(bò)荷油味不薄(báo),很受歡迎,但要薄(bó)利多銷.
              41、拓:拓片、拓本的“拓”讀 tà ,開拓、拓荒的“拓”讀 tuò .
              42、惡:這條惡(è)狗真可惡(wǜ),滿身臭味,讓人聞了就惡(ě)心.
              43、便:局長大腹便便(piōn),行動不便(biàn).
              44、宿:小明在宿(sǜ)舍說了一宿(xiǚ)有關星宿(xiǜ)的常識.
              45、號:受了批評,那幾名小號(hà)手都號(háo)啕大哭起來.
              46、藏:西藏(zàng)的布達拉宮是收藏(cáng)大藏(zàng)經的寶藏(zàng).
              47、軋:軋(zhá)鋼車間的工人很團結,沒有相互傾軋(yà)的現象.
              48、卡:這輛藏匿毒品的卡(kǎ)車在過關卡(qiǎ)時被截住了.
              49、調:出現矛盾要先調(diào)查,然后調(tiáo)解.
              50、模:這兩件瓷器模(mǘ)樣很相似,像是由一個模(mó)型做出來的.
              51、沒:駕車違章,證件被交警沒(mò)收了,他仍像沒(méi)事一樣.
              52、舍:我真舍(shě)不得離開住了這么多年的宿舍(shè).
              53、殷:老林家境殷(yīn)實,那清一色殷(yān)紅的實木家具令人贊嘆不已.
              54、還:下課后我還(hái)要去圖書館還(huán)書.
              55、系:你得系(jì)上紅領巾去學校聯系(xì)少先隊員來參加活動.
              56、假:假(jiǎ)如兒童節學校不放假(jià),我們怎么辦?
              57、降:我們有辦法使從空中降(jiàng)落的敵人投降(xiáng).
              58、脯:胸脯(pú)、果脯(fǔ)不是同一個讀音.
              59、間:他們兩人之間(jiān)的友誼從來沒有間(jiàn)斷過.
              60、石:兩石(dàn)石(shí)子不夠裝一卡車.
              61、勁:球場上遇到勁(jìng)敵,倒使他干勁(jìn)更足了.
              62、茄:我不喜歡抽雪茄(jiā)煙,但我喜歡吃番茄(qié).
              63、刨:我刨(bào推刮)平木頭,再去刨(páo挖掘)花生.
              64、彈:這種彈(dān)弓彈(án)力很強.
              65、顫:聽到這個噩耗,小劉顫(zhàn)栗,小陳顫(chàn)抖.
              66、扒:他扒(bā)下皮鞋,就去追扒(pá)手.
              67、散:我收集的材料散(sàn)失了,散(sǎn)文沒法寫了.
              68、數:兩歲能數(shǔ)數(shù)的小孩已數(shùo)見不鮮了.
              69、參:人參(shēn)苗長得參(cēn)差不齊,還讓人參(ān)觀嗎.
              70、會:今天召開的會(kuài)計工作會(huì)議一會(huì)兒就要結束了.
              71、簸:他用簸(bò)箕簸(bǒ)米.
              72、嚇:敵人的恐嚇(hèè)嚇(xià)不倒他.
              73、胖:肥胖(pàng)并不都是因為心寬體胖(pán),而是缺少鍛煉.
              74、耙:你用梨耙(bà)耙(bà)地,我用釘耙(pá)耙(pá)草.
              75、伺:邊伺(cì)候他邊窺伺(sì)動靜.
              76、好:好(hào)逸惡勞、好(hào)為人師的做法都不好(hǎo).
              77、咳:咳(haī)!你怎么又咳(ké)起來了?
              78、處:教務處(chǔ)正在處(chù)理這個問題.
              79、囤:大囤(dùn)、小囤(dùn),都囤(tún)滿了糧食.
              80、縫:這臺縫(féng)紉機的臺板有裂縫(fèng).
              81、澄:澄(dèng)清混水易,澄(chéng)清問題難.
              82、扇:他拿著扇(shàn)子卻扇(shān)不來風.
              83、得:你得(děi必須)把心得(dé)體會寫得(de)具體、詳細些.
              84、屏:他屏(bǐng)氣凝神躲再屏(píng)風后面.
              85、幾:這幾(jǐ)張茶幾(jī)幾(jī)乎都要散架了.
              86、卷:考卷(juàn)被風卷(juǎn)起,飄落到了地上.
              87、樂:教我們音樂(yùe)的老師姓樂(yùe),他樂(lè)于助人.
              88、了:他了(liào)望半天,對地形早已了(liǎo)如指掌了(le).
              89、吭: 小李一聲不吭(kēng),小王卻引吭(háng)高歌.
              90、粘:膠水不粘(nián)了,書頁粘(zhān)不緊.
              91、畜:畜(xù)牧場里牲畜(chù)多.
              92.稱:稱(chèng同“秤”)桿的名稱(chēng)、實物要相稱(chèn)
              93.弄:別在弄(lòng)堂在玩弄(nòng)小鳥.
              94.倆:他兄弟倆(liǎ)耍猴的伎倆(liǎng)不過如此.
              95.露:小楊剛一露(lòu)頭,就暴露(lù)了目標.
              96.重:老師很重(zhòng)視這個問題,請重(chóng)說一遍.
              97.率:他辦事從不草率(shuài),效率(lǜ)一向很高.
              98.空:有空(kòng)閑就好好讀書,盡量少說空(kōng)話.
              99.泊:小船漂泊(bó)在湖泊(pō)里.
              100.朝:我朝(zhāo)氣蓬勃朝(cháo)前走.
              101.膀:膀(páng)胱炎會使人膀(pāng)腫嗎?
              102.校:上校(xiào)到校(jiào)場找人校(jiào)對材料.
              103.強:小強(qiáng)很倔強(jiàng),做事別勉強(qiǎng)他.
              104.塞(sài)外并不閉塞(sè),塞(sāi)子塞(sāi)不住漏洞.
              105.辟:隨意誣陷人搞封建復辟(bì)可不行,得辟(pì)謠.
              106.倒:瓶子倒(dǎo)了,水倒(dào)了出來.
              107.都:大都(dū名詞)市的人口都(dōu副詞)很多.
              108.匙:湯匙(chí)、鑰匙(shi)都放在桌子上.

              【辦臨時牌子需要什么】

              辦臨時牌子需要什么(三):

              明清時期加強君權的措施【辦臨時牌子需要什么】

                明代內閣制度
                在明代,一切事,總之是皇帝最后總其成.但皇帝一人當然管不盡這許多事,因此我們就得講一講皇帝的秘書處.明代皇帝的秘書處,當時稱為內閣.秘書便是內閣大學士.因為皇帝在宮里辦公,他需要幾個秘書幫他忙,這些人的辦公地點在中極、建極、文華、武英四殿,還有文淵閣、東閣兩閣.這些處都在內廷,所以這些人就稱為內閣學士或內閣大學士.內閣學士原本的官階只五品,而六部尚書是二品,可見內閣學士在朝廷上地位并不高.上朝排班,大學士的朝位班次也在尚書的下面.今且說這些大學士做些什么事情呢?在太祖時,內閣學士不過像是皇帝的顧問,遇皇帝有不清楚的事,可以隨時問他們,聽他們意見,做皇帝之參考.奏章批答,從前是宰相的事,現在是皇帝的事.皇帝不能一一親自動筆,便口授大學士寫出,這所謂“傳旨當筆”.由皇帝吩咐下來,這事怎樣辦,那事怎樣批,他們只照皇帝意見寫下.所以照理,大學士不過是皇帝的私人秘書,政治大權還是在皇帝,不在大學士.
                據當時統計,自洪武十七年九月十四日至二十一日,先后八日間,內外諸司送到皇宮里的奏章,共有一千一百六十件.每件奏章里,有講一件事的,也有講兩三件事的,共計有三千二百九十一件事.此因中國地方大,一切事集中到中央,中央政府所當預聞的事當然多.遠從秦始皇帝時,早已把天平秤著公文,兀自天天看到深夜不得息,何況到明代?那時,西方還沒有現代像樣的英、法諸國.西班牙、葡萄牙這些小國家,不論疆土那么小,政治規模也簡單得可憐.這當然不能與中國比.試問當時偌大一個國家,件件事要經皇帝批核,這當然很困難.我們試看北平故宮,前面三大殿,是朝會之所,后面如乾清宮等,由皇帝住宿.他天天要到前面來辦公,距離既相當遠,北平之氣候九月就結冰,次年二三月才解凍,早上天氣尤其冷.而中國政府傳統習慣,會議上朝,總要在日出前,早上天不亮就朝會,皇帝也須黎明即起,等到太陽出來便散會了.一般做官人,多半住宮城外,遠的如前門外騾馬市大街等處.早上跑進皇宮有很遠的一段路,騎著一匹馬,帶著一個仆人,掌一盞燈籠,四更五更就要去.到了紫禁城,還得下馬,仍準騎馬的只有少數幾個人.一律須先到朝房,靜候皇帝上朝.皇帝出來,天還沒大亮,遇到天氣寒冷,那時也沒有近代的防寒設備.火爐很簡陋,生些炭火,不過擺擺樣子而已.明制一天有三次朝,稱早朝、午朝、晚朝,如實則皇帝要三次出面見群臣及民眾.明制常朝有兩種:一叫御殿,一叫御門.御殿又稱內朝,是在大殿內朝會議事.御門是到奉天門,就在陽臺上,讓老百姓也可以見面說話.現在西方國家有什么大集會,還有在陽臺上講話的風氣,我們稱這是一種民主政治的精神,其實清朝故宮的午門,就是與被皇帝和民眾見面的陽臺,不過這種制度清朝沒有行,但明朝卻有.皇帝一天要上朝三次,多少的麻煩.明太祖是開國皇帝,天下是他打來的,以前他是皇覺寺和尚,掃地挑水也干過,他有這樣精力,可以做獨裁的皇帝.明成祖也還是親手打天下,他是封出去的王,從北京打到南京來篡了皇位,他也有精力可以親裁庶務.再下去的兒孫,生長在深宮,精力逐代萎
                縮,便不能這樣做.甚至不能天天出來上朝見群臣.今天不上朝,明天事情就接不上.事情接不上,不能叫文武百官在那里老等著,也不能群臣們說了話,皇帝無辭可答.后來皇帝便只有偷懶,把政權交付與內閣,閣權慢慢地重起來.
                不過閣權雖重,而他們的官階還是低,仍只五品,因此通常內閣大學士都由尚書兼,這樣一來,內閣學士地位雖不高,尚書地位是高的.同時也和宋代般,他們都有經筵講官.經筵講官,是教皇帝或太子讀書的,那是皇室的老師.由曾任這些官職的人來兼內閣大學士,自然和皇帝關系是既尊且親了.所以明代的大學士(皇帝私人秘書)以六部尚書(政府行政長官)和曾任經筵講官(皇帝的老師)的來兼任,他們的地位就尊嚴了.然而明朝大學士的官銜,卻始終是某部尚書兼某殿(閣)大學士,譬如兵部尚書兼武英殿大學士之類,他的本官還是尚書,大學士還是一兼職.直到明代亡國,大學士還是一個五品官.不過上朝時,他以尚書身份而兼大學士,已經是站在其他尚書的前面了.然照制度正軌論,他之所以尊,尊在其本官,不尊在其兼職.所以明代內閣大學士,就官制論,絕對不能和漢唐宋時代的宰相地位相比論.
                然而明代大學士,他在官職上的地位雖然低,他在政府里的權任卻很高.因為一切奏章,政事,看詳批答,都要經他們手.太祖、成祖時代,皇帝自己處決事情,口頭吩咐大學士代筆,大學士自然只如一秘書.后來皇帝年輕不懂事,事事要諮詢大學士意見.而且皇帝因于自己不懂事,也怕和大學士們時常見面,內外一應章奏,現由大學士看過,拿一張小簽條,寫出他們意見,附貼在公事上,送進宮里,在由皇帝細閱決定,這在當時叫做“條旨”,就是向皇帝分條貢獻意見的意思.又稱“票擬”,是說用一個小條子(即票)擬具意見,送皇帝斟酌.待皇帝自己看過,拿這條自撕了,親用紅筆批下,名為“批紅”,亦稱“朱批”.批好拿出去,這便是正式的諭旨.在唐代,一切政令由宰相擬定,送皇帝畫敕.在宋代,是宰相向皇帝上箚子,先得皇帝同意或批改,再正式擬旨.現在明代,則一切詔令,皆出皇帝親旨,大學士只替皇帝私人幫忙,全部責任在皇帝.而皇帝失職,卻并無辦法,算只有給事中有時可以封駁.給事中究竟是太小的官位,哪能拗得過皇帝.所以明代制度,可以說是由皇帝獨裁了.不過碰到大事情,皇帝還是要到文華殿、武英殿來同那批大學士當面商量,只小事情不重要的,由內閣寫了條子送進皇宮給皇帝慢慢地批.
                但我們應知明代的天下,將近三百年之久,最初是皇帝親自在內閣,后來有些皇帝不常到內閣,由內閣條旨票擬送進去批.甚至有幾個皇帝則長久不管事,因不管事而更不能管事,就變成怕見大臣了.于是經年累月,不再到內閣,一切公事都要送進宮里去.最有名的就是萬歷皇帝明神宗,他做了幾十年皇帝,有二十幾年沒有上過朝,政府里大臣都沒有見過他一面.當時人傳說他抽大煙,真假不知,不過這也很可能.自憲宗成化以后,到熹宗天啟,前后一百六十七年,皇帝也都沒有召見過大臣.但我們也不能盡怪這些皇帝的不好,因他們精力、智力有限,天天困在深宮,而要處決一應國家大事,這何等的不容易.無怪他們要怕事偷懶,避不上朝.我們只該怪明太祖訂下那制度的不好.即是廢宰相而由皇帝來獨裁政事,那一制度確實在要不得.
                現在再說皇帝和內閣日常不見面,于是皇帝和內閣中間的接觸,就多出一重太監上下其手的機會.皇帝有事交付與太監,再由太監交給內閣.內閣有事,也同樣送太監,再由太監上呈與皇帝.這樣,太監就慢慢地弄了權.甚至皇帝嫌麻煩,自己不批公事,私下叫太監批.批紅的實權,落到太監手里,太監變成了真皇帝,掌握政府一切最高最后的決定權.遇到太監懶批的,便把來當作包魚包肉的廢紙用.這種黑暗腐敗,在歷史上,只有明代有.太監領袖稱司禮監,明代政制最壞時,私禮監便是真宰相,而且是真皇帝.當初太祖定制,一面廢去宰相,一面卻也預防到太監預聞政事的可能.故在洪武十七年,鑄了一塊“內臣不得干預政事”的鐵牌,掛在宮門里.可見太祖心里盡明白,廢了宰相,由皇帝來獨裁,太監接近皇帝,易于得弄權.正如漢武帝把相權攬在宮里,也預知嗣皇帝幼小,容易招致皇太后預政,所以要先把母后賜死.這些可有之流害,他們也是想到的,然而明太祖規定不準立宰相,這是他后人遵守了,始終沒有敢違背.至于不準太監干預政事,他后人卻沒有遵守.明代太監預政,就比任何朝代干預得厲害.這哪里是太祖始料所及呢?
                在這種情形下,外面弄得沒辦法,內閣學士若真要做點事,也必須先勾結太監.因為內閣見不著皇帝面,非結合太監,一切政事便透不上最高層.明代有名內閣大學士張居正,這是近人所推中國歷史上大政治家之一個,但他也只能結合太監,才能攬實權.在神宗萬歷還沒有做皇帝時,張居正就是神宗的師傅.神宗做了皇帝,張居正是當朝皇帝老師,而且又是內閣大學士.然而先生見不到學生面,大學士照政制論,是無法主持政令的.于是張居正只有同司禮監勾結,他才能舒展抱負,來策動當時的政事.但當時朝臣大家都反對張居正,說他不像前朝宰相,不是政府正式的行政首長,不該弄權專政.這批評實在也不錯.當時尚書六部才是政府最高行政長官,他們只須聽命于皇帝,并不須聽命于內閣.若內閣和六部發生意見,六部可以說:你不是宰相,不是大臣,不該管我們的事.不該管的事而管,不該攬的權而攬,此是權臣,非大臣.權臣弄權與大臣當權,在中國傳統政治觀點上是大有分別的.大臣是在當時的制度上有他正當的地位的.在中國傳統制度下,宰相無事不該問,無權不該把.他不問事,不當權,是失職,是無能.并非宰相,而問事攬權,是奸臣,是權臣.權臣弄權,這是違反國法的,也是違反政治上的傳統道德的.然而明代的制度,則根本沒有一個正式的宰相.六部尚書乃及七卿九卿,始是名正言順的大臣.當時反對張居正的人,他們心里想:部(六部)院(都察院)長官,分理國事,只受皇帝節制,你做內閣大學士,只是皇帝私人顧問,你在皇帝面前,“從容論思”是你的責任,你不該借著這一點關系正式出面來干涉部院,那是你越權.因為張居正要管事,所以他要各衙門奏章公事每樣備兩份,一份送內閣,一份送六科給事中.這又是他不對.給事中雖官階低,但在當時政制法理上,一切文件,該他過目,這是不錯的.內閣則并無必須預聞之職權,只皇帝私
                下要他預聞才預聞.所以當時人反對張居正,張居正市沒有理由答辯的.他于是只有向皇帝去辭職,他說他“所處者危地,所理者皇上之事,所代者皇上之言”,這幾句話,絲毫也不錯.然試問當時何嘗有一道正式命令叫張居正代理皇帝呢?依照中國政治傳統,皇帝不該干預宰相的事,此在講漢、唐、宋三代政制時,已詳細述及了.現在是內閣不得干預皇帝的權,就明論明,是不錯的,張居正也無法自辯.現在我們不了解當時這情形,總認為張居正是一大政治家,他能主張講法治,其實他本身就已違法了,而且違反了當時國家的大本大法呀.該皇帝管的事,他來管,那豈非不法之至嗎?若張居正在漢唐宋三代,那是一好宰相.依明代制度論,張居正是一內閣學士,不是政府中最高領袖,不得以內閣學士而擅自做宰相,這是明代政制上最大的法理,也是明代之所以異于漢唐宋傳統的.張居正要以相體自居,他一死,他家就被抄了.雖然他在明代有很大的建樹,但當時清議,并不講他好話,這就因為認他是一個權臣,非大臣.這不是專就他功業言,而是由他在政府之地位上的正義言.此刻我們要提倡法治,卻又來推尊張居正,這正為不了解明代政治制度.當知明代的政治制度,早和漢、唐、宋傳統有了很大的變化.張居正并未能先把當時制度改正,卻在當時制度下曲折謀求事功,至少他是為目的不擇手段,在政治影響上有利弊不相抵的所在呀!我們以上的說法,只就制度與法理論,不從事業和居心論.至少在當時那些反對派的意見是如此.我們詳細講述這一層,正為闡明制度如何牽制著人事,而明代此項制度之要不得,也就即此更可論定了.
                設立軍機處.
                軍機處的設立是清代中樞機構的重大變革,標志著清代君主集權發展到了頂點.軍機處成立于雍正七年(1729年),初名“軍機房”,不久改稱“辦理軍機處”,乾隆以后省去“辦理”二字,遂簡稱為“軍機處”了.軍機處本為辦理軍機事務而設,但因它便于發揮君主專制獨裁,所以一旦出現之后,便被皇帝抓往不放,不但常設不廢,而且其職權愈來愈擴大.軍機處的職官有軍機大臣,俗稱"大軍機",有軍機章京,俗稱“小軍機”.軍機大臣由皇帝從滿、漢大學士、尚書、侍郎等官員內特選,有些也由軍機章京升任.軍機大臣之任命,其名目為“軍機處行走”,或“軍機大臣上行走”.所謂“行走者”,即入值辦事之意.軍機大臣沒有定額,軍機處初設時為三人,以后增加到四、五人至八、九人,最多至十一人.軍機章京初無定額,至嘉慶初年,始定為滿、漢章京各十六人,共三十二人,滿、漢章京又各分兩班值班,每班八人.軍機章京之任命,或稱為“軍機司員上行走”,或稱為“軍機章京上行走”.
                軍機處成立后,議政王大臣會議于乾隆五十六年(1791年)廢止了,內閣變成只是辦理例行事務的機構,一切機密大政均歸于軍機處辦理.軍機處總攬軍、政大權二端,真正成為執政的最高國家機關.軍機大臣無日不被召見,無日不承命辦事,出沒于宮廷之間.皇帝行動所到的地方,軍機大巨也無不隨從在側.但軍機處完全置于皇帝的直接掌握之下,等于皇帝的私人秘書處.軍機處在權力上是執政的最高國家機關,而在形式上始終處于臨時機構的地位,不像正式國家機關的樣子.軍機處辦公的地方不稱衙署,僅稱“值房”.軍機大臣的值房稱為“軍機堂”,初僅板屋數間,后來才改建瓦屋.軍機章京的值房,最初僅屋一間半、后來才有屋五間.軍機處也無專官,軍機大臣、軍機章京都是以原官兼職,皇帝可以隨時令其離開軍機處,回本衙門.軍機大臣既無品級,也無俸祿.軍機大臣之任命,并無制度上的規定可供遵循,完全出于皇帝的自由意志.軍機大臣的職務也沒有制度上的規定,一切都是皇帝臨時交辦的,所以軍機大臣只是承旨辦事而已.“只供傳述繕撰,而不能稍有贊畫于其間”,這些都說明軍機處是皇帝集權的最好的工具.

              辦臨時牌子需要什么(四):

              我和爸爸去提車 作文


              7月17日,我和爸爸等人一起興奮地來到成都十佳汽車銷售商之一的建國汽貿公司處提車。因為我們訂了一輛銀灰白的東風本田——思域!我們來到了人山人海的成都,雖然天氣十分炎熱,我們還是興致勃勃地來到了向往幾天的建國汽車銷售中心。眼前的景色讓我眼花繚亂——就汽車的顏色有紅色的、有白色的、有藍色的、有銀灰色的、有黑色的、有銀灰白的……而汽車的品牌就更多了:有保時捷、有別克、有卡羅拉、有雪佛蘭SPARK樂馳、有沃爾沃、有豐田漢蘭達、有福特、有奧迪……來到我們訂的雪花銀的思域面前,我激動得左看右看,里面有許多按鈕:有控制空調的、有控制燈的、有控制座椅的……坐上汽車,我十分激動,心里想,有了車我上學就不怕夏熱冬寒了!我們外出旅游也方便多了,爺爺奶奶節日回老家也解決了買車票的煩惱了!
              這車的外表弧線比較好,后視鏡還是電動的呢!而車的里面,是數字顯示速度的呢,司機的椅子是八面調動的,所以司機可以依照自己的喜好來調整座位的位置。以免坐著不舒服影響開車,還可以收聽廣播、播放CD……
              我們耐心地在那里等了近4個小時,才辦好了個臨時牌照,耐心地聽工作人員講了一些有關汽車保養、汽車維護、汽車使用的知識,留了他們24小時的搶修電話。
              辦完事后我們踏上了回家的路,在飛速的路上,我好像吃了蜂糖一樣甜透了心!

              本文來源:http://www.harajorga.com/my/163908/

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